A Concise History of Kentucky

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The fire was fought from both the bridge itself and from the river below the bridge. The train was eventually pulled off the bridge to fully contain the fire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Commonwealth of Kentucky Railroad Commission, Volume 7, , p. The Geographical Review, , p. Piankeshaw Chapter. Daughters of the American Revolution.


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Piankeshaw Chapter New Albany, Indiana. City of Louisville General Council, , p. United States Congress, , p. American Society of Civil Engineers, , p. December 31, , p. Indiana State Highway Commission. Falls City Area inset. Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved October 24, Old photographs of the bridge opened are in postcard form and pictured in The Courier-Journal.

July 11, Railroad not backing down". The Courier-Journal. June 30, July 1, Bridges of the Ohio River. Basil W. Broderick Pullman Car. Route 31 Steel bridges in the United States establishments in Kentucky establishments in Indiana. He continued to joust with radical congressmen in his own party, and he listened to the opinions of his cabinet members. He was joyous and cheerful. A prominent actor, the Maryland-born Booth supported the Confederacy and despised Lincoln as a tyrant and tool of the abolitionists.

Shockingly, six weeks after the assassination, Andrew Johnson sought to implement his own restoration plan.

A Concise History of Kentucky

His ideas developed over time and often collided with the markedly different ideas of radical Republicans. Little was settled except that the United States would be one and that slavery would be abolished. But under what terms would the states that had seceded regain their place? And how would Southern society navigate its journey from slave labor to free labor? With Congress out of session, he issued a proclamation that provided for amnesty and the restitution of property, except for slaves, to Southerners who took an oath of allegiance.

Johnson had risen from poverty, and he held deep animosity toward planter aristocrats. A former slaveholder, he also shared in the dominant racial ideology of his day. And Johnson took great personal satisfaction from having thousands of members of the Southern elite come groveling for a special pardon.

Stevens sought the enfranchisement of blacks, an action opposed not only by Johnson but also by several Northern states, including Connecticut, which in the fall defeated a state amendment giving black men the vote. On September 7, Thaddeus Stevens delivered a speech in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in which he offered his views on the work of reconstruction, or restoration as Johnson preferred to call it.

But then how, he wondered, might any reconstruction ever take place?


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  • But Congress had different ideas, and when the Thirty-ninth Congress began its work in December, members refused to seat Southern representatives. Instead, they created a joint committee to discuss reconstruction policy. The committee called witnesses and heard testimony about what was taking place on the ground in the former Confederacy.

    What they discovered would lead them to consider civil rights legislation and propose what would become the Fourteenth Amendment. States such as Mississippi and South Carolina passed stringent codes that discriminated against the freedmen. These included vagrancy laws and annual employment contracts aimed at limiting the movements of blacks. The codes also forbade blacks from serving on juries, stipulated harsher punishments for crimes than those given to whites, and outlawed interracial marriage. Johnson also vetoed a civil rights bill passed by Congress on March But are we not in the midst of a revolution?

    On June 13, , Congress submitted the amendment to the states.

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    Every Republican in the House voted for it; every Democrat was opposed. Thaddeus Stevens well understood that the amendment could not be everything he might have desired. Enacted on June 21, it opened up forty-six million acres of public lands across the South Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi to settlement and development.

    It differed from the Homestead Act of in that one could not purchase the land outright. The Act also made clear that blacks and whites were equally eligible. Oliver Howard expressed the optimism of many that this act would go a long way toward providing a solution to the problem of the transition from slavery to freedom. Much of the land made available was of poor quality, and timber companies, through fraud, snatched up the premium acreage.

    The poor whites and blacks most in need of land were also the ones who did not have means to travel to the land or subsist while working it. Blacks also faced resistance from whites who feared losing a pool of wage laborers and did not want them to own their own property. Andrew Johnson took the unprecedented measure of embarking on a speaking tour to win support for his policy of reconciliation.

    Instead, he drove prospective conservative and moderate voters away with harangues that branded his opponents traitors and even suggested that providence had played a role in making him president. If anything, it seemed as if the embers of rebellion were about to reignite. Republicans dominated the election, both nationally and locally. Even in the Upper South, a new group of Unionists supportive of black civil rights gained power.

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    Legislators did not wait for the new members to be seated. It also made state governments only provisional. Johnson vetoed the Act as exceeding congressional authority. On August 1, he suspended Edwin Stanton, the secretary of war, who supported congressional plans of reconstruction. Much to the chagrin of Republicans everywhere, Grant stepped in as interim secretary. He did so to support not Johnson but the military command in the South. Johnson removed several military commanders he thought too radical, including Philip Sheridan and Daniel Sickles.

    On February 21, , Johnson removed Stanton. Three days later, the House impeached him. The trial began on March They are all gone. Democrats had gained seats in state elections the previous year, carrying New York and Pennsylvania.

    Louisville, Kentucky, United States. History, Economy, Climate

    And in Ohio and Minnesota, Democrats rallied to defeat ballot referendums for black male suffrage. Outside New England, black men in the North could not vote any more than freed slaves in the South. The Ku Klux Klan had been founded in Tennessee in June , originally as a private social club, but it quickly morphed into an organization whose members were rabid opponents of Republican politics and black equality.

    Through the fall of , they murdered white and black Republican leaders, terrorized the freedmen, and burned homes and schools. The viciousness that could not overturn the nation is now mainly engaged in the effort to retain the substance of slavery. What are names if the thing itself remains? In eight states, however, the margin of difference in the popular vote was less than 5 percent.

    It was enough to make Republicans realize that though they had won the war, they might be losing the peace. It was an astonishing accomplishment, whose rapidity left observers breathless. In many respects, marked the end of reconstruction. By that year, every state had been readmitted to the nation. In fact, all but three Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia had been readmitted by June Georgia was admitted, then excluded again, and then readmitted in with the other states. By , Congress had passed whatever legislation it was going to generate to support the freedmen and help reconstruct the South, and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments were signed into law.

    It took the South decades to recover its output of cotton, rice, and sugar—in production stood at about two-thirds of that in Per capita income in the South continued to fall, from three-quarters to one-half the national average.

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    Even though some individuals continued to have vast landholdings, the plantation as an economic center began to break down. Most blacks preferred small farms to plantations and quickly became embedded in various forms of land tenancy. They would often rent the land in return for cash or a share of their crop. These arrangements differed depending on what the landlord provided, and inevitably from season to season black farmers as well as white found they were always in debt, placing them in a cycle of always borrowing against future crops.

    With slavery ended, there was a need for labor in the South, and a struggle ensued to make fair agreements between former planters, now landlords, and former slaves, now freedmen. Republican newspapers published letters reputed to be from ex-slaves negotiating for a fair deal. For example, Jourdon Anderson wrote to his former master, who wanted him to return to work for him: We have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you. This will make us forget and forgive old scores, and rely on your justice and friendship in the future.

    I served you faithfully for thirty-two years and Mandy twenty years. If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past we can have little faith in your promises in the future.